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It is a unitary parliamentary republic , with Its capital and largest city is Prague , with 1. The Czech Republic is a developed country with an advance high income social market economy. It ranks as the eleventh safest and most peaceful country and performs strongly in democratic governance. In , the duchy was formally recognized as an Imperial State of the Holy Roman Empire , and became the Kingdom of Bohemia in , reaching its greatest territorial extent in the 14th century.

The members of the Senate are elected in single-seat constituencies by two-round runoff voting for a six-year term, with one-third elected every even year in the autumn. The first election was infor differing terms. This arrangement is modeled on the U. Senatebut each constituency is roughly the same size and the voting system used is a two-round runoff.

The Czech Republic is a unitary state with a civil law system based on the continental type, rooted in Germanic legal culture. The basis of the legal system is the Constitution of the Czech Republic adopted in The Penal Code is effective from A new Civil code became effective in The court system includes district, county and supreme courts and is divided into civil, criminal, and administrative branches.

The Czech judiciary has a triumvirate of supreme courts. The Constitutional Court consists of 15 constitutional judges and oversees violations of the Constitution by either the legislature or by the government. The Supreme Court is formed of 67 judges and is the court of highest appeal for almost all legal cases heard in the Czech Republic. The Supreme Administrative Court decides on issues of procedural and administrative propriety.

It also has jurisdiction over many political matters, such as the formation and closure of political parties, jurisdictional boundaries between government entities, and the eligibility of persons to stand for public office.

The Czech Republic ranks as the 11th safest or most peaceful country. The Czech passport is one of the least restricted by visas. The Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs have primary roles in setting foreign policy, although the President has considerable influence and also represents the country abroad.

Czech officials have supported dissenters in BelarusMoldovaMyanmar and Cuba. The armed forces are managed by the Ministry of Defence. The President of the Czech Republic is Commander-in-chief of the armed forces. In the army transformed itself into a fully professional organization and compulsory military service was abolished.

Defence spending is approximately 1. Sincethe Czech Republic has been divided into thirteen regions Czech : krajesingular kraj and the capital city of Prague.

In Prague, the assembly and presidential powers are executed by the city council and the mayor. The older seventy-six districts okresysingular okres including three "statutory cities" without Prague, which had special status lost most of their importance in in an administrative reform; they remain as territorial divisions and seats of various branches of state administration.

The Czech Republic has a develope [82] high-income [83] export-oriented social market economy based in services, manufacturing and innovation, that maintains a welfare state and the European social model. Monetary policy is conducted by the Czech National Bankwhose independence is guaranteed by the Constitution.

Dividends worth CZK billion were paid to the foreign owners of Czech companies inwhich has become a political issue in the Czech Republic. Production of Czech electricity exceeds consumption by about 10 TWh per year, which are exported.

Nuclear power presently provides about 30 percent of the total power needs, its share is projected to increase to 40 percent. In The Czech Republic is reducing its dependence on highly polluting low-grade brown coal as a source of energy. Natural gas is procured from Russian Gazpromroughly three-fourths of domestic consumption and from Norwegian companies, which make up most of the remaining one-fourth.

Russian gas is imported via Ukraine, Norwegian gas is transported through Germany. Gas consumption approx. South Moravia has small oil and gas deposits. Init handled 15 million passengers, which makes it the one of the busiest airports in Central Europe. Russia, via pipelines through Ukraine and to a lesser extent, Norway, via pipelines through Germany, supply the Czech Republic with liquid and natural gas.

The Czech Republic ranks in the top 10 countries worldwide with the fastest average internet speed. The Czech lands have a long and rich scientific tradition.

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The research based on cooperation between universitiesAcademy of Sciences and specialized research centers brings new inventions and impulses in this area. Important contributions include the modern contact lensthe separation of blood typesthe basic theory of genetics, many advances in nanotechnologies and the production of Semtex plastic explosive.

Cyril and Methodius laid the foundations of education and the Czech theological thinking in the 9th century. Original theological and philosophical stream - Hussitism - originated in the Middle Ages.

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At the end of the Middle Ages, Jan Amos Comenius substantially contributed to the development of modern pedagogy. Jewish philosophy in the Czech lands was represented mainly by Judah Loew ben Bezalel known for the legend of the Golem of Prague. Bernard Bolzano was the personality of German-speaking philosophy in the Czech lands.

He also started the struggle for rescuing the Czech language. This culminated in the Czech national revival in the first half of the 19th century. He wrote the first synthetic history of the Czech nation. He was also the first Czech modern politician and geopolitician see also Austro-Slavism.

FREE Ceska Republika chat rooms at Join the hottest Ceska Republika chatrooms online! Mingle2's Ceska Republika chat rooms are full of fun, sexy singles like you. Sign up for your free Ceska Republika chat account now and meet hundreds of Hlavni Mesto Praha singles online! No other Ceska Republika chat sites compare! Czech Republic Ceska republika (Czech) Flag Greater coat of arms Motto: "Pravda vitezi" (Czech) "Truth prevails" Anthem: Kde domov muj (Czech) Where is my home a Location of the Czech Republic (dark green) - in Europe (green & dark grey) - in the European Union (green) - [Legend] Capital and largest city Prague 5005?N 1428?E ? / ? N E ? / Capital and largest city: Prague, 5005?N 1428?E? . Ceska Republika's best FREE dating site! Free Online Dating for Ceska Republika Singles at Our free personal ads are full of single women and men in Ceska Republika looking for serious relationships, a little online flirtation, or new friends to go out with. Start meeting singles in Ceska Republika today with our free online personals and free Ceska .

He is often called "The Father of the Nation". In the second half of the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century there was a huge development of social sciences. Alois Musil was a prominent orientalist, Emil Holub ethnographer. Lubor Niederle was a founder of modern Czech archeology. Sigmund Freud established psychoanalysis.

Edmund Husserl defined a new philosophical doctrine - phenomenology. Joseph Schumpeter brought genuine economic ideas of "creative destruction" of capitalism. Hans Kelsen was significant legal theorist. Karl Kautsky influenced the history of Marxism. Max Wertheimer was one of the three founders of Gestalt psychology.

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Musicologists Eduard Hanslick and Guido Adler influenced debates on the development of classical music in Vienna. The new Czechoslovak republic - wanted to develop sciences. Philosopher Herbert Feigl was a member of the Vienna Circle. In the second half of the 20th century can be mentioned philosopher Ernest Gellner who is considered one of the leading theoreticians on the issue of nationalism. Also Czech historian Miroslav Hroch analyzed modern nationalism.

Egon Bondy was a major philosophical spokesman of the Czech underground in the s and s. Czech Egyptology has scored some successes, its main representative is Miroslav Verner. Czech psychologist Stanislav Grof developed a method of "Holotropic Breathwork". Experimental archaeologist Pavel Pavel made several attempts, they had to answer the question how ancient civilizations transported heavy weights. A number of other scientists are also connected in some way with the Czech lands.

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The Czech economy gets a substantial income from tourism. The low crime rate makes most cities and towns very safe to walk around. The territory was formerly the site of steel production, but now it hosts a technical museum with many interactive expositions for tourists. All of them are in the cultural category. As offurther 18 sites are on the tentative list. There are several centres of tourist activity. There are 12 cathedrals and 15 churches elevated to the rank of basilica by the Pope, calm monasteries, many modern and ancient churches - for example Pilgrimage Church of Saint John of Nepomuk is one of those inscribed on the World Heritage List.

The country is also known for its various museums. Puppetry and marionette exhibitions are very popular, with a number of puppet festivals throughout the country. The total fertility rate TFR in was estimated at 1. About 77, people immigrate to the Czech Republic annually.

According to preliminary results of the census, the majority of the inhabitants of the Czech Republic are Czechs As the 'nationality' was an optional item, a substantial number of people left this field blank There were4.

Most of the foreign population lives in Prague The Jewish population of Bohemia and Moravia,according to the census, was virtually annihilated by the Nazi Germans during the Holocaust. At the turn of the 20th century, Chicago was the city with the third largest Czech population, after Prague and Vienna. Christianization in the 9th and 10th centuries introduced Catholicism. Taborites and Utraquists were major Hussite groups.

Following the joint Utraquist-Catholic victory, Utraquism was accepted as a distinct form of Christianity to be practiced in Bohemia by the Catholic Church while all remaining Hussite groups were prohibited. In the wake of the Reformation, Utraquist Hussites took a renewed increasingly anti-Catholic stance, while some of the defeated Hussite factions notably Taborites were revived.

After the Habsburgs regained control of Bohemia, the whole population was forcibly converted to Catholicism-even the Utraquist Hussites. Going forward, Czechs have become more wary and pessimistic of religion as such. A long history of resistance to the Catholic Church followed.

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It suffered a schism with the neo-Hussite Czechoslovak Hussite Church inlost the bulk of its adherents during the Communist era and continues to lose in the modern, ongoing secularization. Protestantism never recovered after the Counter-Reformation was introduced by the Austrian Habsburgs in Education in the Czech Republic is compulsory for 9 years and citizens have access to a tuition-free university educationwhile the average number of years of education is Healthcare in the Czech Republic is similar in quality to other developed nations.

The Czech universal health care system is based on a compulsory insurance modelwith fee-for-service care funded by mandatory employment-related insurance plans. Theodoric of Prague was the most famous Czech painter in the Gothic era. For example, he decorated the castle Karlstejn. At the end of the century came a wave of Art Nouveau.

Alfons Mucha became the main representative. He is today the most famous Czech painter. The 20th century brought avant-garde revolution. The Czech Republic is known worldwide for its individually made, mouth blown and decorated Bohemian glass. The earliest preserved stone buildings in Bohemia and Moravia date back to the time of the Christianization in the 9th and 10th century. Since the Middle Ages, the Czech lands have been using the same architectural styles as most of Western and Central Europe.

The oldest still standing churches were built in the Romanesque style St. George's BasilicaSt. Vitus CathedralSt. During the Hussite warsmany of them were damaged or destroyed.

An example of the pure Renaissance architecture in Bohemia is the Queen Anne's Summer Palacewhich was situated in a newly established garden of Prague Castle. In the 17th century, the Baroque style spread throughout the Crown of Bohemia.

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Very outstanding are the architectural projects of the Czech nobleman and imperial generalissimo Albrecht von Wallenstein from the s Wallenstein Palace. His architects Andrea Spezza and Giovanni Pieroni reflected the most recent Italian production and were very innovative at the same time.

In the first third of the 18th century the Bohemian lands were one of the leading artistic centers of the Baroque style. In Bohemia there was completed the development of the Radical Baroque style created in Italy by Francesco Borromini and Guarino Guarini in a very original way.

In the 18th century Bohemia produced an architectural peculiarity - the Baroque Gothic stylea synthesis of the Gothic and Baroque styles. This was not a simple return to Gothic details, but rather an original Baroque transformation. During the 19th century, the revival architectural styles were very popular in the Bohemian monarchy.

Peter and Paul in Brno. At the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries the new art style appeared in the Czech lands - Art Nouveau. Bohemia contributed an unusual style to the world's architectural heritage when Czech architects attempted to transpose the Cubism of painting and sculpture into architecture House of the Black Madonna.

During the first years of - Czechoslovakia aftera specifically Czech architectural style, called Rondo-Cubismcame into existence. Together with the pre-war Czech Cubist architecture it is unparalleled elsewhere in the world.

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The first Czechoslovak president T. Between World Wars I and II, Functionalismwith its sober, progressive forms, took over as the main architectural style in the newly established Czechoslovak Republic. In the city of Brno, one of the most impressive functionalist works has been preserved - Villa Tugendhatdesigned by the architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. Hotel International in Prague is a brilliant example of the so-called Socialist realismthe Stalinistic art style of the s.

The Czechoslovak avant-garde artistic movement known as the Brussels style named after the Brussels World's Fair Expo 58 became popular in the time of political liberalization of Czechoslovakia in the s. Even today, the Czech Republic is not shying away from the most modern trends of international architecture. In a strict sense, Czech literature is the literature written in the Czech language. A more liberal definition incorporates all literary works written in the Czech lands regardless of language.

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Thus Franz Kafkawho-while bilingual in Czech and German -wrote his works The TrialThe Castle in German, during the era of Austrian rule, can represent the CzechGerman or Austrian literature depending on the point of view. Bible translations played an important role in the development of Czech literature and the standard Czech language. The oldest Czech translation of the Psalms originated in the late 13th century and the first complete Czech translation of the Bible was finished around The first complete printed Czech Bible was published in Prague Bible.

The first complete Czech Bible translation from the original languages was published between and and is known as the Bible of Kralice. The Codex Gigas from the 12th century is the largest extant medieval manuscript in the world.

The Czech Republic has the densest network of libraries in Europe. Czech literature and culture played a major role on at least two occasions when Czechs lived under oppression and political activity was suppressed. On both of these occasions, in the early 19th century and then again in the s, the Czechs used their cultural and literary effort to strive for political freedom, establishing a confident, politically aware nation.

The musical tradition of the Czech lands arose from first church hymns, whose first evidence is suggested at the break of 10th and 11th century. Inin the beginning of the Czechoslovak state, the song was discussed as one of the possible choices for the national anthem. The wealth of musical culture in the Czech Republic lies in the long-term high-culture classical music tradition during all historical periods, especially in the BaroqueClassicismRomantic, modern classical music and in the traditional folk music of Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia.

Since the early era of artificial music, Czech musicians and composers have often been influenced the folk music of the region and dances e.

Czech music can be considered to have been beneficial in both the European and worldwide context, several times co-determined or even determined a newly arriving era in musical art, above all of Classical era, as well as by original attitudes in BaroqueRomantic and modern classical music. The most famous music festival in the country is Prague Spring International Music Festival of classical music, a permanent showcase for outstanding performing artists, symphony orchestras and chamber music ensembles of the world.

The roots of Czech theatre can be found in the Middle Ages, especially in cultural life of gothic period. In the 19th century, the theatre played an important role in the national awakening movement and later, in the 20th century it became a part of the modern European theatre art.

Original Czech cultural phenomenon came into being at the end of the s. This project called Laterna magika The Magic Lantern was the brainchild of renowned film and theater director Alfred Radokresulting in productions that combined theater, dance and film in a poetic manner, considered the first multimedia art project in international context. The tradition of Czech cinematography started in the second half of the s. However, dramatic movies were more internationally successful.

Another Czech cultural phenomenon came into being at the end of the s. This project called Laterna magika "The Magic Lantern"resulting in productions that combined theater, dance and film in a poetic manner, considered the first multimedia art project in international context mentioned also in Theatre section above.

The hallmark of the films of this movement were long, often improvised dialoguesblack and absurd humor and the occupation of non-actors. Directors are trying to preserve natural atmosphere without refinement and artificial arrangement of scenes.

He is a self-labeled surrealist known for his animations and features, which have greatly influenced many artists worldwide. The Czech Lion is the highest Czech award for film achievement. The Barrandov Studios in Prague are the largest film studios in country and one of the largest in Europe with many many popular film locations in the country. Karlovy Vary International Film Festival is one of the oldest in the world and has become Central and Eastern Europe's leading film event.

Since the Czech Republic is a democratic republic, journalists and media enjoy a great degree of freedom. There are restrictions only against writing in support of Nazismracism or violating Czech law. The most watched main news program is TV Nova. Newspapers are quite popular in the Czech Republic.

The best-selling daily national newspapers are Blesk average 1. The Czech Game of the Year Awards are held annually to recognize accomplishments in video game development. Czech cuisine is marked by a strong emphasis on meat dishes. Pork is quite common; beef and chicken are also popular.

Goose, duck, rabbit and venison are served. Fish is less common, with the occasional exception of fresh trout and carpwhich is served at Christmas. Czech beer has a long and important history. The first brewery is known to have existed in and the Czech Republic has the highest beer consumption per capita in the world. Apart from these and other major brands, the Czech Republic also has a growing number of small breweries and mini-breweries.

Aside from slivovitzCzech beer and wine, the Czechs also produce two unique liquorsFernet Stock and Becherovka.

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Kofola is a non-alcoholic domestic cola soft drink which competes with Coca-Cola and Pepsi in popularity. Sports play a part in the life of many Czechs, who are generally loyal supporters of their favorite teams or individuals. The two leading sports in the Czech Republic are ice hockey and football. The many other sports with professional leagues and structures include basketball, volleyball, team handballtrack and field athletics and floorball.

The country has won 14 gold medals in summer plus 49 as Czechoslovakia and five gold medals plus two as Czechoslovakia in winter Olympic history. Czech hockey school has a good reputation. The Czech ice hockey team won the gold medal at the Winter Olympics and has won twelve gold medals at the World Championships including 6 as Czechoslovakiaincluding three straight from to The Czechoslovakia national football team was a consistent performer on the international scene, with eight appearances in the FIFA World Cup Finals, finishing in second place in and The team also won the European Football Championship incame in third in and won the Olympic gold in After dissolution of Czechoslovakia, the Czech national football team finished in second and third place at the European Football Championship.

Czech Republic women's national basketball team won the EuroBasket Women. Czechoslovakia national basketball team won EuroBasket It will take place in Prague for the Group Phase matches.

Czech Republic hosted the EuroBasket Women recently. MTX automobile company was formerly engaged in the manufacture of racing and formula cars since Czech Republic MotoGP is the most famous motor race in the country. Sport is a source of strong waves of patriotism, usually rising several days or weeks before an event. Czechs are also generally keen on engaging in sports activities themselves.

One of the most popular sports Czechs do is hiking, mainly in the mountains. The word for "tourist" in the Czech language, turistaalso means "trekker" or "hiker". For hikers, thanks to the more than year-old tradition, there is a Czech Hiking Markers System of trail blazingthat has been adopted by countries worldwide.

The most significant sports venues are Eden Arena e. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Country in Central Europe.

For other uses, see Czechia disambiguation and Czech Republic disambiguation. Greater coat of arms. The question is rhetoricalimplying "those places where my homeland lies". Code 42 was shared with Slovakia until Main article: Name of the Czech Republic. Historical affiliations.

Main article: History of the Czech lands. Maximum Celtic expansion by the s BCE. Areas that remain Celtic-speaking today. Main article: Bohemia.

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Main article: History of Czechoslovakia. Main articles: Velvet Revolution and Dissolution of Czechoslovakia. Main article: Geography of the Czech Republic. Berounka river valley in western Bohemia. Beskids mountains in eastern Moravia. Humid continental climate. Oceanic climate. Subarctic climate. European eagle-owla protected predator. Fire salamandera common amphibian in humid forests. Red squirrel Sciurus vulgarisa protected animal.

Summer cep occurs in deciduous oak forests. Straka Academyseat of the Government. Thun Palace, seat of the Chamber of Deputies. Wallenstein Palaceseat of the Senate. Main article: Foreign relations of the Czech Republic. Main article: Army of the Czech Republic. Main article: Economy of the Czech Republic. Main article: Energy in the Czech Republic.

Main article: Transport in the Czech Republic. Main article: Internet in the Czech Republic. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. This section is in list format, but may read better as prose. You can help by converting this sectionif appropriate. Editing help is available. January Main article: Tourism in the Czech Republic. Main article: Demographics of the Czech Republic. Religion in the Czech Republic [6] Undeclared. Main article: Education in the Czech Republic. Main article: Healthcare in the Czech Republic. Main article: Culture of the Czech Republic.

Main article: Czech architecture. Main article: Czech literature. Main articles: Music of the Czech Lands and Moravian traditional music. The National Theatre left and the Estates Theatre right. Main article: Theatre of the Czech Republic. Main article: Cinema of the Czech Republic.

Main article: Video gaming in the Czech Republic.

Main article: Czech cuisine. Czech Cuisine. A mug of Pilsner Urquellthe first pilsner type of pale lager beer, brewed since Baked duck with sauerkraut. Easter bread baked during the celebrations of Easter.

Main article: Sport in the Czech Republic. Czech Republic portal. Czech Republic - Official website. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic. Archived from the original on 6 November Retrieved 14 November Article 25 of the Czech Charter of Fundamental Rights and Basic Freedoms ensures the right of the national and ethnic minorities to education and communication with the authorities in their own language.

Act No. The Administrative Rule in its paragraph 16 4 Procedural Language ensures that a citizen of the Czech Republic who belongs to a national or an ethnic minority, which traditionally and on a long-term basis lives within the territory of the Czech Republic, has the right to address an administrative agency and proceed before it in the language of the minority. If the administrative agency has no employee with knowledge of the language, the agency is bound to obtain a translator at the agency's own expense.

According to Act No. Archived from the original on 9 August Retrieved 2 September Archived from the original on 12 January Czech Statistical Office. Archived from the original on 21 February Retrieved 23 April Retrieved 22 July Retrieved on 19 December International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 2 November Archived from the original on 20 March Retrieved 9 June United Nations Development Programme.

Retrieved 10 December Archived from the original on 11 January Retrieved 13 September Countries - 7. Designations and abbreviations to use". Publications Office. Archived from the original on 20 October Retrieved 31 January The United Nations Terminology Database. Archived from the original on 15 September Czech Foreign Ministry. Archived from the original on 3 April Retrieved 25 March Radio Prague. Retrieved 22 January Archived from the original on 12 May Retrieved 14 May Accessed on 3 July Archived from the original on 16 January Retrieved 31 October Archived from the original on 28 November Encyclopedia of the Cold War.

Archived from the original on 22 November Retrieved 13 December Collins English Dictionary. Archived from the original on 16 January Retrieved 19 November American Heritage Dictionary. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Retrieved 24 January Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 12 April Retrieved 11 April Archived from the original on 9 December Archived from the original on 9 March Retrieved 11 February Archived from the original on 28 August Retrieved 28 August The Empire of the Steppes.

Rutgers University Press. Retrieved 26 August Archived from the original on 17 February Retrieved 25 April Archived from the original on 7 September Archived from the original on 15 August Archived from the original on 4 April Retrieved 29 April Virtual Museum of Protestantism. Archived from the original on 15 October Retrieved 25 May Rametp.

Meyering, p.

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Archived from the original on 22 June Retrieved 22 June Geopolitics of the Central European region: the view from Prague and Bratislava. Archived from the original on 17 July Part 2.

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Division 1 ". Henry Hoyle Howorth. Francis Ludwig Carsten Rich, C. Wilson, M. Postan New York, Oxford: Berghahn Books. Archived from the original on 25 May Retrieved 24 May Archived from the original on 14 September Archived from the original on 5 June Retrieved 2 June cts of European History - Page Chapter "Austria-Hungary and the successor states".

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Archived from the original on 7 July Garrett Palgrave Macmillan. Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin.

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