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This article is from Open Magazine. The war he is referring to is the one that famously lasted for 18 days, the greatest of all wars. He switches on his laptop, clicks on Stellarium, a planetarium software that simulates the sky in 3D, feeds in some data, and soon we are staring at a configuration on the screen which looks like the night sky with stars glittering on it. This is the sky just before the Battle of Kurukshetra, according to Bhatnagar, an astronomer who has spent the years since his retirement- as additional director general from the Positional Astronomy Centre of the Indian Meteorological Department-extracting astronomical references from the Mahabharata. By tracing the winter solstice and the autumnal equinox indicated in the text, he has found a time bracket of 1, years. He then looked for eclipses within that period, and one by one, he says, it all fell into place. His paper on the war's dating will be part of a book of research on the Mahabharata that I-Serve plans to bring out later this year.
University of Chicago Press. London: Longman, Green, Longman, and Roberts.
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Archived from the original on 12 October British Library. Retrieved 15 April The Genesis of Ram's Bridge". Hakai Magazine.
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Dating of Rama - 12:30 pm, 10 Jan, 5114 BCE
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Carbon dating ramayana
Retrieved 10 April The Wire. It establishes the fact that Krishna existed.
Professor S.M. Ramasamy's team from Centre for Remote Sensing (CRS) at this university asserted that "as the carbon dating of the beaches roughly matches the dates of Ramayana, its link to the epic needs to be explored". Ramasamy's team dates the structure to 3, years.
Also, literary references to the characters from the Ramayana Era provide limits after which the Ramayana could not have occurred. For example, Valmiki is referred to in the Taittiriya Brahmana dated to BCE and therefore Ramayana must have been written before the Taittiriya Brahmana was composed. The wonderful thing about the Ramayana is that when Valmiki wrote the epic, he made it idiot-proof.
He packed so much information about the various planetary positions of those days, the geography of the areas mentioned in the epic, the seasonal events, and about the genealogy of various kings that modern astronomers and scientists can have a crack at the dates on which those events occurred.
Genealogical links and archaeological findings provide clues to the dating of the Ramayana era. According to journalist and author B. Any ancient history is supported with evidences of architecture and literature. The Sangam literature is the documented evidence for the existence and ruling of Tamil kings, and similarly, Ramayana and Mahabharata are the documented evidence for Rama and Krishna.
Questioning Ramayana and Mahabharata is like questioning the very existence of India. Archaeological and literary methods can only provide approximate datelines. For determining the precise time of the Ramayana events, scientists use astronomical calculations.
On the other hand, most of those trying to prove the epics are history are scientists. These scientists are studying facts, they are looking back in time at precession or the position of stars.
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They are not regurgitating the discredited writings of Karl Marx, the racist German who supported English rule over India. So how is astronomical dating done?
Historian Dr P. To decipher the astronomical encodings has not been a trivial task, and not many have attempted to do so. It should be noted that the ancient Indians had a perfect method of time measurement.
By noting a particular arrangement of the astronomical bodies, which occurs once in many thousand years, the dates of the events can be calculated.
Dr Vartak has taken hundreds of illustrated passages from the epic to establish dates. Bala Kanda 18, Shloka 8. December 4, BCE, therefore, is the date of birth of Rama, when the four planets exalted. Ramayana occurred over years ago.
Frankly, only an astrologer or astronomer can make any sense of it. Events - such as an eclipse, planetary or astral positioning or a comet sighting - mentioned in an epic like the Ramayana may have occurred subsequently or prior. Over a period of say, 20, years, a particular type of event could have happened several times. We know that Indian mythological sources might have preserved information about prehistoric peopling as well as past societal structure.
And we use this information and look into the human genome DNAwhich preserves information back several generations. And then we see how this information coming from their genome is in concordance or vice-versa with the mythological information,' he explains in an interview over email.
The Ramayana project is ongoing, and the plan for the next phase is to collect DNA samples from communities that claim direct lineage from Rama and then look for a consensus result-if any-that traces his male descent via the Y chromosomal haplogroup.
Chaubey also speaks of how his growing up years in Varanasi gave him a firm grounding in mythological texts and sources, which he now applies to research. He is extending the same analysis to the Mahabharata. She turned to botany and zoology to establish the historicity of the Ramayana.
Two life scientists from the institute, P Sudhakar and M Amirthalingam studied the plants and animals of the Ramayana.
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The idea for this research came to her while on a visit to Bhimbetka caves in Madhya Pradesh, where she saw a painting of a tiger and a lion together. Dismissing it as artistic licence, since the two are not found in the same forest, she later found out that in the forest of Dandakaranya, the two had co- existed, and Valmiki had weaved this into the Ramayana.
She felt she had to follow his trail. By next year, the results of their work on Krishna and the Mahabharata will be out. The Mahabharata, though, is not as yielding in botanical information as the Ramayana.
Nanditha Krishna has also authored Sacred Plants of India and Sacred Animals of India published by Penguinbooks about research done on the Vedas and epics to authenticate their historicity.
As I searched for correlations in ancient texts, I realised that while writers can make up stories about people, they cannot fake plants and animals, which are described so accurately in these texts.
The Epic Riddle Of Dating Ramayana, Mahabharata
That was a tremendous source to authenticate our literature. Neera Misra, Chairperson, Draupadi Trust: "We associate Draupadi with her five husbands and the cheer haran disrobingbut she is greatly misunderstood.
She was witty and intelligent. An icon of our times" Photo: Raul Irani. Neera Misra, who runs the Draupadi Trust in Delhi, is not a historian or scientist, unlike other pursuers. She is a former entrepreneur who was drawn to the field quite by accident. Misra belongs to Kampilya, which, located in Farrukhabad district of Uttar Pradesh, is considered the birthplace of Draupadi and the capital of the kingdom of Panchala.
Some years ago, while recovering from an illness, she started watching reruns of Mahabharata on television and realised the importance of Kampilya. She also rediscovered Draupadi, and through her work she has introduced the question of gender to the debate on the epic's historicity.
She was witty and intelligent, fiercely independent and progressive.
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She is an icon for our times," says Misra. Her tiny office is filled with ancient maps of Panchala, some frayed with age. I have a connection with the land. Misra has the air of someone who knows how to get things done.
She campaigned extensively for excavation at Kampilya, which took place between and Misra talks about the tragedy of Kampilya. The mound where Drupad Kila Fort of King Drupad is assumed to be located has been taken over by squatters.