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Cross, M. Hill, P. King, D. Morse, Z. Pilles, E. Tolometti, G. Tornabene, L. Inafter national delimitationthe constituent republic of the Soviet Union known as the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic was created.

Following the break-up of the Soviet Unionit declared independence as the Republic of Uzbekistan on 31 August Uzbekistan has a diverse cultural heritage due to its storied history and strategic location.

Russian has widespread use as an inter-ethnic communication language and as a language of governance. A majority of Uzbeks are non-denominational Muslims. While officially a democratic republic, [14] by non-governmental human rights organisations defined Uzbekistan as "an authoritarian state with limited civil rights".

Following the death of Islam Karimov inthe second president, Shavkat Mirziyoyevstarted a new course, which was described as a A Quiet Revolution and Revolution from Above. He stated he intended to abolish cotton slaverysystematic use of child labour, [16] and exit visasand to introduce a tax reform and create four new free economic zones and he has amnestied some political prisoners.

Relations with the neighbouring countries of KyrgyzstanTajikistan and Afghanistan drastically improved. The Uzbek economy is in a gradual transition to the market economywith foreign trade policy being based on import substitution. In Septemberthe country's currency became fully convertible at market rates. Uzbekistan is a major producer and exporter of cotton. With the gigantic power-generation facilities of the Soviet era and an ample supply of natural gasUzbekistan has become the largest electricity producer in Central Asia.

Strengths indicated by Brookings Institution include Uzbekistan having large liquid assets, high economic growth and low public debt. Among the constraints holding the republic back are low GDP per capita, something the government could influence by changing how it accounts for sectors of the economy not currently included. It is the 56th largest country in the world by area and the 42nd by population. Bordering Kazakhstan and the Aralkum Desert former Aral Sea to the north and northwest, Turkmenistan and Afghanistan to the southwest, Tajikistan to the southeast, and Kyrgyzstan to the northeast, Uzbekistan is one of the largest Central Asian states and the only Central Asian state to border all the other four.

Uzbekistan is a dry, landlocked country. It is one of two doubly landlocked countries in the world that is, a country completely surrounded by landlocked countriesthe other being Liechtenstein. In addition, due to its location within a series of endorheic basins, none of its rivers lead to the sea. The rest is vast desert Kyzyl Kum and mountains. The climate in Uzbekistan is continental, with little precipitation expected annually - millimetres, or 3.

Uzbekistan has a rich and diverse natural environment. However, decades of questionable Soviet policies in pursuit of greater cotton production have resulted in a catastrophic scenario with the agricultural industry being the main contributor to the pollution and devastation of both air and water in the country.

The Aral Sea used to be the fourth-largest inland sea on Earth, acting as an influencing factor in the air moisture and arid land use. Reliable, or even approximate data, have not been collected, stored or provided by any organisation or official agency. Due to the Aral Sea problem, high salinity and contamination of the soil with heavy elements are especially widespread in Karakalpakstanthe region of Uzbekistan adjacent to the Aral Sea.

Heavy use of pesticides and fertilisers for cotton growing further aggravates soil contamination. Uzbekistan has also been home to seismic activity, as evidenced by the Andijan earthquakeFergana Valley earthquakeand Tashkent earthquake. The first people known to have inhabited Central Asia were Scythians who came from the northern grasslands of what is now Uzbekistan, sometime in the first millennium BC; when these nomads settled in the region they built an extensive irrigation system along the rivers.

As East Asian countries began to develop its silk trade with the West, Persian cities took advantage of this commerce by becoming centres of trade.

Using an extensive network of cities and rural settlements in the province of Transoxianaand further east in what is today China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, the Sogdian intermediaries became the wealthiest of these Iranian merchants. As a result of this trade on what became known as the Silk RouteBukhara and Samarkand eventually became extremely wealthy cities, and at times Transoxiana Mawarannahr was one of the most influential and powerful Persian provinces of antiquity.

A conquest was supposedly of little help to Alexander as popular resistance was fierce, causing Alexander's army to be bogged down in the region that became the northern part of the Macedonian Greco-Bactrian Kingdom. For many centuries the region of Uzbekistan was ruled by the Persian empires, including the Parthian and Sassanid Empires, as well as by other empires, for example those formed by the Turko-Persian Hephthalite and Turkic Gokturk peoples.

In the 8th century, Transoxiana, the territory between the Amudarya and Syrdarya rivers, was conquered by the Arabs Ali ibn Sattor becoming a focal point soon after of the Islamic Golden Age.

Many notable scientists lived there and contributed to its development after the conquest. Among the achievements of the scholars during this period were the development of trigonometry into its modern form simplifying its practical application to calculate the phases of the moonadvances in opticsin astronomyas well as in poetry, philosophy, art, calligraphy and many others, which set the foundation for the Muslim Renaissance.

In the 9th and 10th centuries, Transoxiana was included into the Samanid State. The Mongol conquest under Genghis Khan during the 13th century would bring about a change to the region.

The Mongol invasion of Central Asia led to the displacement of some of the Iranian-speaking people of the region, their culture and heritage being superseded by that of the Mongolian - Turkic peoples who came thereafter. The invasions of Bukhara, Samarkand, Urgench and others resulted in mass murders and ucbeebies-games.comecedented destruction, such as portions of Khwarezmia being completely razed.

Following the death of Genghis Khan inhis empire was divided among his four sons and his family members. Despite the potential for serious fragmentation, the Mongol law of the Mongol Empire maintained orderly succession for several more generations, and control of most of Transoxiana stayed in the hands of the direct descendants of Chagatai Khanthe second son of Genghis Khan. Orderly succession, prosperity, and internal peace prevailed in the Chaghatai lands, and the Mongol Empire as a whole remained a strong and united kingdom Ulus Batiy, Sattarkhan.

During this period, most of present Uzbekistan was part of the Chagatai Khanate except Khwarezm was part of the Golden Horde. After the decline of the Golden Horde, Khwarezm was briefly ruled by the Sufi Dynasty till Timur's conquest of it in In the early 14th century, however, as the empire began to break up into its constituent parts, the Chaghatai territory was disrupted as the princes of various tribal groups competed for influence.

One tribal chieftain, Timur Tamerlane[38] emerged from these struggles in the s as the dominant force in Transoxiana. Although he was not a descendant of Genghis Khan, Timur became the de facto ruler of Transoxiana and proceeded to conquer all of western Central Asia, Iranthe CaucasusMesopotamiaAsia Minorand the southern steppe region north of the Aral Sea.

He also invaded Russia before dying during an invasion of China in Timur was known for his extreme brutality and his conquests were accompanied by genocidal massacres in the cities he occupied. Timur initiated the last flowering of Transoxiana by gathering together numerous artisans and scholars from the vast lands he had conquered into his capital, Samarqand. By supporting such people, he imbued his empire with a rich Perso-Islamic culture.

During his reign and the reigns of his immediate descendants, a wide range of religious and palatial construction masterpieces were undertaken in Samarqand and other population centres. It was during the Timurid dynasty that Turkic, in the form of the Chaghatai dialect, became a literary language in its own right in Transoxiana, although the Timurids were Persianate in nature.

The greatest Chaghataid writer, Ali-Shir Nava'iwas active in the city of Herat now in northwestern Afghanistan in the second half of the 15th century.

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The Timurid state quickly split in half after the death of Timur. The chronic internal fighting of the Timurids attracted the attention of the Uzbek nomadic tribes living to the north of the Aral Sea.

Ang Republika ng Uzbekistan (internasyunal: Republic of Uzbekistan) ay isang bansa sa Gitnang Asya. Nakikihati ang hangganan nito sa Kazakhstan sa kanluran at hilaga, Kyrgyzstan at Tajikistan sa silangan, at Afghanistan at Turkmenistan sa timog. Nagmula ang pangalang Uzbekistan sa mga nomadikong Uzbek na mula sa lahing cbeebies-games.com : (medium) (ika). High-Class Mumbai Escorts To Satisfy Your Wildest Needs & Fantasies. If Ethiopia Dating Websites you're watching to get a luxury escort at Mumbai experience, then 'Top Call Girls Mumbai could be the most suitable option. Our females are amazing, bright and put the same value on making certain solitude just as far because they can Ethiopia Dating Websites do on supplying you with having a / Repuvlic Islamic State, or ISIS, has been taking swaths of territory in northern Iraq and Ano ang dating pangalan ng republic of uzbekistan in recent weeks. Between taking the increasingly toward Kurdistan, the de facto state of northern Bucinys i galva online dating the chaos, U. officials ano ang dating pangalan ng republic of uzbekistan.

In the Uzbek forces began a wholesale invasion of Transoxiana. In the 19th century, the Russian Empire began to expand and spread into Central Asia. There wereRussians living in Uzbekistan in A second, less intensive phase followed the Bolshevik Revolution of Much of the land between was unmapped. By the beginning ofCentral Asia was firmly in the hands of Russia and, despite some early resistance to the BolsheviksUzbekistan and the rest of the Central Asia became a part of the Soviet Union.

A number also fought on the German side. As many asUzbek soldiers died in the battlefields of the Eastern Frontand 32, went missing in action. On 20 JuneUzbekistan declared its state sovereignty. On 31 AugustUzbekistan declared independence after the failed coup attempt in Moscow.

The Soviet Union was dissolved on 26 December of that year. Islam Karimovruler of Uzbekistan since independence, died on 2 September After Uzbekistan declared independence from the Soviet Union inan election was held, and Islam Karimov was elected as the first President of Uzbekistan on 29 December The elections of the Oliy Majlis Parliament or Supreme Assembly were held under a resolution adopted by the 16th Supreme Soviet in In that year, the Supreme Soviet was replaced by the Oliy Majlis.

The third elections for the bicameral member Oliy Majlis, the Legislative Chamber, and the member Senate for five-year terms, were held on 27 December The second elections were held in December to January The Oliy Majlis was unicameral up to Its size increased from 69 deputies members in to inand currently stands at Most international observers refused to participate in the process and did not recognise the results, dismissing them as not meeting basic standards.

The referendum also included a plan for a bicameral parliament consisting of a lower house the Oliy Majlis and an upper house Senate.

Members of the lower house are to be "full-time" legislators. Elections for the new bicameral parliament took place on 26 December. Following Islam Karimov's death on 2 Septemberthe Supreme Assembly appointed then prime minister, Shavkat Mirziyoyev, as interim president of Uzbekistan on 8 September Although the chairman of the Senate, Nigmatilla Yuldashevwas constitutionally designated as Karimov's successor, Yuldashev proposed that Mirziyoyev take the post of interim president instead in light of Mirziyoyev's "many years of experience".

Mirziyoyev was subsequently elected as the country's second president in the December presidential electionwinning Mirziyoyev removed most of Karimov's officials and urged the government to employ "new, young people who love their country. He visited all the Uzbek regions and big cities to get acquainted with the implementation of the projects and reforms which he ordered.

The Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan asserts that "democracy in the Republic of Uzbekistan shall be based upon common human principles, according to which the highest value shall be the human being, his life, freedom, honour, dignity and other inalienable rights.

The official position is summarised in a memorandum "The measures taken by the government of the Republic of Uzbekistan in the field of providing and encouraging human rights" [46] and amounts to the following: the government does everything that is in its power to protect and to guarantee the human rights of Uzbekistan's citizens.

Uzbekistan continuously improves its laws and institutions in order to create a more humane society. Over laws regulating the rights and basic freedoms of the people have been passed by the parliament. For instance, an office of Ombudsman was established in However, non-governmental human rights organisations, such as IHFHuman Rights WatchAmnesty Internationalas well as United States Department of State and Council of the European Uniondefine Uzbekistan as "an authoritarian state with limited civil rights" [15] and express profound concern about "wide-scale violation of virtually all basic human rights".

It has also been reported that forced sterilisation of rural Uzbek women has been sanctioned by the government. As ofreports on violations on human rights in Uzbekistan indicated that violations were still going on without any improvement.

In the report, Uzbekistan was one of the 11 worst countries for Political Rights and Civil Liberties. The civil unrest in Uzbekistanwhich resulted in several hundred people being killed, is viewed by many as a landmark event in the history of human rights abuse in Uzbekistan.

The government of Uzbekistan is accused of unlawful termination of human life and of denying its citizens freedom of assembly and freedom of expression.

The government vehemently rebuffs the accusations, maintaining that it merely conducted an anti-terrorist operation, exercising only necessary force.

Ano ang dating pangalan ng republic of uzbekistan

Uzbekistan also maintains the world's second-highest rate of modern slavery3. In real terms, this means that there are 1. Most work in the cotton industry. The government allegedly forces state employees to pick cotton in the autumn months. Islam Karimov died in and his successor Shavkat Mirziyoyev is considered by most to be pursuing a less autocratic path by increasing co-operation with human rights NGOs, [64] [65] scheduling Soviet-style exit visas to be abolished in[66] and reducing sentences for certain misdemeanor offences.

Uzbekistan is divided into twelve provinces viloyatlarsingular viloyatcompound noun viloyati e.

Ano ang dating pangalan ng republic of uzbekistan

Names are given below in UzbekRussianand Karakalpak languages when applicable, although numerous variations of the transliterations of each name exist. The provinces are further divided into districts tuman. Uzbekistan mines 80 tons of gold annually, seventh in the world. Uzbekistan's copper deposits rank tenth in the world and its uranium deposits twelfth.

The country's uranium production ranks seventh globally. The country has significant untapped reserves of oil and gas: there are deposits of hydrocarbons in Uzbekistan, including 98 condensate and natural gas deposits and 96 gas condensate deposits.

Along with many Commonwealth of Independent States or CIS economies, Uzbekistan's economy declined during the first years of transition and then recovered afteras the cumulative effect of policy reforms began to be felt. InUzbekistan was the world's seventh-largest producer and fifth-largest exporter of cotton [78] as well as the seventh-largest world producer of gold. It is also a regionally significant producer of natural gas, coal, copper, oil, silver and uranium. Facing a multitude of economic challenges upon acquiring independence, the government adopted an evolutionary reform strategy, with an emphasis on state control, reduction of imports and self-sufficiency in energy.

Sincethe state-controlled media have repeatedly proclaimed the success of this "Uzbekistan Economic Model" [85] and suggested that it is a unique example of a smooth transition to the market economy while avoiding shock, pauperism and stagnation. As ofUzbekistan's economy is one of the most diversified in Central Asia what makes the country an attractive economic partner for China.

The gradualist reform strategy has involved postponing significant macroeconomic and structural reforms. The state in the hands of the bureaucracy has remained a dominant influence in the economy.

Corruption permeates the society and grows more rampant over time: Uzbekistan's Corruption Perception Index was out of countries, whereas in Uzbekistan was th out of countries. A February report on the country by the International Crisis Group suggests that revenues earned from key exports, especially cotton, gold, corn and increasingly gas, are distributed among a very small circle of the ruling elite, with little or no benefit for the populace at large.

According to the Economist Intelligence Unit"the government is hostile to allowing the development of an independent private sector, over which it would have no control". The economic policies have repelled foreign investment, which is the lowest per capita in the CIS. However, strict currency controls and the tightening of borders have lessened the effect of this measure.

Stabilisation efforts implemented with guidance from the IMF [92] paid off. The government of Uzbekistan restricts foreign imports in many ways, including high import duties.

Excise taxes are applied in a highly discriminatory manner to protect locally produced goods.

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A number of CIS countries are officially exempt from Uzbekistan import duties. Uzbekistan has a Bilateral Investment Treaty with fifty other countries.

The stocks of all Uzbek joint stock companies around 1, are traded on RSE. The number of listed companies as of January exceeds Securities market volume reached 2 trillion inand the number is rapidly growing due to the rising interest by companies of attracting necessary resources through the capital market.

According to Central Depository as of January par value of outstanding shares of Uzbek emitters exceeded nine trillion. Uzbekistan is predicted to be one of the fastest-growing economies in the world top 26 in future decades, according to a survey by global bank HSBC. As ofUzbekistan has the largest population out of all the countries in Central Asia, and is the second-largest if Kazakhstan is excluded.

Its 32, citizens comprise nearly half the region's total population. The population of Uzbekistan is very young: There is some controversy about the percentage of the Tajik population. Today, the majority of Uzbeks are admixed and represent varying degrees of diversity.

There are also small groups of Armenians in Uzbekistanmostly in Tashkent and Samarkand. The U. There were 94, Jews in Uzbekistan in about 0.

In our opening section Ano Ang Dating Pangalan Ng Republic Of Uzbekistan we will Ano Ang Dating Pangalan Ng Republic Of Uzbekistan share a list of some good bars and clubs for you to party with some single ladies. After that we are going to talk about what else Nagoya, sometimes called NED, has to / Uzbekistan has an area of , square kilometres (, sq mi). It is the 56th largest country in the world by area and the 42nd by population. Among the CIS countries, it is the 4th largest by area and the 2nd largest by population. Uzbekistan lies between latitudes 37 and 46 N, and longitudes 56 and 74 cbeebies-games.com stretches 1, kilometres ( mi) from west to east and Calling code: + Ang Pilipinas ay ipinangalan sa karangalan ni Haring Felipe II ng cbeebies-games.comalanan ng Kastilang manggagalugad na si Ruy Lopez de Villalobos, sa gitna ng kaniyang paglalayag noong , ang mga pulo ng Leyte at Samar bilang Felipinas ayon sa pangalan ng Prinsipe ng cbeebies-games.com huli, ang pangalang Las Islas Filipinas ang sasaklaw sa lahat ng mga pulo sa cbeebies-games.com : (katamtaman) (Ika).

Fewer than 5, Jews remained in Uzbekistan in Russians in Uzbekistan represented 5. During the Soviet period, Russians and Ukrainians constituted more than half the population of Tashkent. ApproximatelyCrimean Tatars continue to live in Uzbekistan.

Uzbekistan has a Life expectancy in Uzbekistan is 66 years among men and 72 years among women. Islam is the dominant religion in Uzbekistan, although Soviet power - discouraged the expression of religious belief, and they were repressed during its existence as a Soviet Republic. A Pew Research Center report stated that Uzbekistan's population is Despite the predominance of Islam and its rich history in the country, the practice of the faith is far from monolithic.

Uzbeks have practised many versions of Islam. The conflict of Islamic tradition with various agendas of reform or secularisation throughout the 20th century has left a wide variety of Islamic practices in Central Asia. The end of Soviet control in Uzbekistan in did not bring an immediate upsurge of religion-associated fundamentalismas many had predicted, but rather a gradual re-acquaintance with the precepts of the Islamic faith. The Jewish community in the Uzbek lands flourished for centuries, with occasional hardships during the reigns of certain rulers.

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During the rule of Tamerlane in the 14th century Jews contributed greatly to his efforts to rebuild Samarkand and a great Jewish centre was established there. After the area came under Russian rule inJews were granted equal rights with the local Muslim population.

By only one synagogue out of 30 remained in Samarkand; nevertheless, underground Jewish community life continued during the Soviet era. The Uzbek language is one of the Turkic languages close to Uyghur language and both of them belong to the Karluk branch of the Turkic language family. It is the only official national language and since is officially written in the Latin alphabet.

In the Latin alphabet was introduced and went through several revisions throughout the s. Finally, inthe Cyrillic alphabet was introduced by Soviet authorities and was used until the fall of Soviet Union. In Uzbekistan shifted back to the Latin script Uzbek alphabetwhich was modified in and is being taught in schools since Educational establishments teach only the Latin notation.

At the same time, the Cyrillic notation is common among the older generation.

Travel To Uzbekistan - History And Documentary About Uzbekistan In Urdu & Hindi - ???????? ?? ???

Karakalpaka Turkic language closer to Kazakh and spoken by half a million people, is spoken primarily in the Republic of Karakalpakstan and has an official status on the territory.

Although the Russian language is not an official language in the country, it is widely used in many fields. Digital information from the government is bilingual. The country is also home to approximately one million native Russian speakers.

The Tajik language a variety of Persian is widespread in the cities of Bukhara and Samarkand because of their relatively large population of ethnic Tajiks. More thanpeople also speak the Kazakh language. There are no language requirements to attain citizenship in Uzbekistan.

According to the official source report, as of 10 Marchthe number of cellular phone users in Uzbekistan reached 7 million, up from 3. MCT Corp. As of 1 Julythe estimated number of internet users was 1.

Internet Censorship exists in Uzbekistan and in October the government toughened internet censorship by blocking access to proxy servers. The press in Uzbekistan practices self-censorship and foreign journalists have been gradually expelled from the country since the Andijan massacre of when government troops fired into crowds of protesters killing according to official reports and estimates of several hundred by unofficial and witness accounts. Tashkentthe nation's capital and largest city, has a three-line rapid transit system built inand expanded in after ten years' independence from the Soviet Union.

Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan are currently the only two countries in Central Asia with a subway system. It is promoted as one of the cleanest systems in the former Soviet Union. For example, the station Metro Kosmonavtov built in is decorated using a space travel theme to recognise the achievements of mankind in space exploration and to commemorate the role of Vladimir Dzhanibekovthe Soviet cosmonaut of Uzbek origin.

A statue of Vladimir Dzhanibekov stands near a station entrance. There are government-operated trams and buses running across the city. There are also many taxis, registered and unregistered. Uzbekistan has plants that produce modern cars. The car production is supported by the government and the Korean auto company Daewoo. Afterward, it signed an agreement with Isuzu Motors of Japan to produce Isuzu buses and lorries.

Ano ang dating tawag na pangalan sa Republic of Uzbekistan - it declared independence as the Republic of Uzbekistan on 31 August 1 vote 1 vote What is the meaning of suffrage Sino sino ang pangunahing tagapagtaguyod ng renaisance Ano ano ang kontribusyon sa panahon ng renaisance Saan galing si magellan Mga natuuhan sa. We can not make referrals to any Ano Ang Dating Pangalan Ng Republic Of Uzbekistan escorts or review websites. If you wish to contact those who post, please use the contact information Ano Ang Dating Pangalan Ng Republic Of Uzbekistan provided by the individuals listed on our website/ Ano ang dating pangalan ng republic of uzbekistan - Is the number one destination for online dating with more marriages than any other dating or personals site. If you are a middle-aged woman looking to have a good time dating man half your age, this advertisement is for you. Join the leader in online dating services and find a date today. Join and search!

Train links connect many towns in Uzbekistan, as well as neighbouring former republics of the Soviet Union. Moreover, after independence two fast-running train systems were established. Uzbekistan launched the first high-speed railway in Central Asia in September between Tashkent and Samarqand. The new high-speed electric train Talgocalled Afrosiyobwas manufactured by Patentes Talgo S. Spain and took its first trip from Tashkent to Samarkand on 26 August The plant originated during World War II, when production facilities were evacuated south and east to avoid capture by advancing Nazi forces.

Until the late s, the plant was one of the leading aeroplane production centres in the USSR. With dissolution of the Soviet Union its manufacturing equipment became outdated; most of the workers were laid off. Now it produces only a few planes a year, but with interest from Russian companies growing, there are rumours of production-enhancement plans. With close to 65, servicemen, Uzbekistan possesses the largest armed forces in Central Asia Bobur.

The military structure is largely inherited from the Turkestan Military District of the Soviet Armyalthough it is going through a reform to be based mainly on motorised infantry with some light and special forces [ citation needed ].

The Uzbek Armed Forces' equipment is standard, mostly consisting those of post-Soviet inheritance and newly crafted Russian and some American equipment. The government has accepted the arms control obligations of the former Soviet Union, acceded to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty as a non-nuclear stateand supported an active program by the U. The Government of Uzbekistan spends about 3. Following 11 September terrorist attacks in the U.

Central Command 's request for access to an air base, the Karshi-Khanabad airfield, in southern Uzbekistan. However, Uzbekistan demanded that the U. The last US troops left Uzbekistan in November Uzbekistan joined the Commonwealth of Independent States in December However, it is opposed to reintegration and withdrew from the CIS collective security arrangement in Since that time, Uzbekistan has participated in the CIS peacekeeping force in Tajikistan and in UN-organized groups to help resolve the Tajikistan and Afghanistan conflicts, both of which it sees as posing threats to its own stability.

Previously close to Washington which gave Uzbekistan half a billion dollars in aid inabout a quarter of its military budgetthe government of Uzbekistan has recently restricted American military use of the airbase at Karshi-Khanabad for air operations in neighbouring Afghanistan.

The relationship between Uzbekistan and the United States began to deteriorate after the so-called " colour revolutions " in Georgia and Ukraine and to a lesser extent Kyrgyzstan.

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When the U. In late Julythe government of Uzbekistan ordered the United States to vacate an air base in Karshi-Kanabad near Uzbekistan's border with Afghanistan within days. Karimov had offered use of the base to the U. This is another reason for the hostility between Uzbekistan and the West. It is a founding member of, and remains involved in, the Central Asian Unionformed with Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, and joined in March by Tajikistan.

Despite criticism, this seems to be a sign of improving relationships between Uzbekistan and the West. The month of October also saw a decrease in the isolation of Uzbekistan from the West. The EU announced that it was planning to send a delegation to Uzbekistan to talk about human rights and liberties, after a long period of hostile relations between the two.

Although it is equivocal about whether the official or unofficial version of the Andijan Massacre is true, the EU is evidently willing to ease its economic sanctions against Uzbekistan. Nevertheless, it is generally assumed among Uzbekistan's population that the government will stand firm in maintaining its close ties with the Russian Federation and in its theory that the - protests in Uzbekistan were promoted by the US and UK.

Karimova-Tillyaeva and her team have been instrumental in promoting inter-cultural dialogue by increasing European society's awareness of Uzbekistan's cultural and historical heritage. Uzbekistan has a wide mix of ethnic groups and cultures, with the Uzbek being the majority group. It is said, however, that the number of non-Uzbek people living in Uzbekistan is decreasing as Russians and other minority groups slowly leave and Uzbeks return from other parts of the former Soviet Union. When Uzbekistan gained independence inthere was concern that Muslim fundamentalism would spread across the region.

The expectation was that a country long denied freedom of religious practice would undergo a very rapid increase in the expression of its dominant faith. As ofover half of Uzbekistan's population was said to be Muslim, though in an official survey few of that number had any real knowledge of the religion or knew how to practice it.

However, Islamic observance is increasing in the region. Central Asian classical music is called Shashmaqamwhich arose in Bukhara in the late 16th century when that city was a regional capital. Shashmaqam is closely related to Azerbaijani Mugam and Uyghur muqam. The name, which translates as six maqams refers to the structure of the music, which contains six sections in six different Musical modessimilar to classical Persian traditional music.

Interludes of spoken Sufi poetry interrupt the music, typically beginning at a lower register and gradually ascending to a climax before calming back down to the beginning tone. Uzbekistan has a high literacy ratewith about Students attend school Monday through Saturday during the school year, and education officially concludes at the end of the 12th grade.

There are two international schools operating in Uzbekistan, both in Tashkent: The British School catering for elementary students only, and Tashkent International Schoola K international curriculum school. Uzbekistan has encountered severe budget shortfalls in its education program. The education law of began the process of theoretical reform, but the physical base has deteriorated and curriculum revision has been slow.

A large contributor to this decline is the low level of wages received by teachers and the lack of spending on infrastructure, buildings and resources on behalf of the government. Corruption within the education system is also rampant, with students from wealthier families routinely bribing teachers and school executives to achieve high grades without attending school, or undertaking official examinations.

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Uzbekistan's universities create almostgraduates annually, though the general standard of university graduates, and the overall level of education within the tertiary system, is low. The Russian-language high education is provided by most national universities, including foreign Moscow State University and Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gasmaintaining campuses in Tashkent. Uzbek cuisine is influenced by local agricultureas in most nations.

There is a great deal of grain farming in Uzbekistan, so breads and noodles are of importance and Uzbek cuisine has been characterised as "noodle-rich". Mutton is a popular variety of meat due to the abundance of sheep in the country and it is part of various Uzbek dishes.

Uzbekistan's signature dish is palov plov or osha main course typically made with ricepieces of meatand grated carrots and onions. Oshi nahoror morning plovis served in the early morning between 6 am and 9 am to large gatherings of guests, typically as part of an ongoing wedding celebration. Other notable national dishes include shurpa shurva or shorvaa soup made of large pieces of fatty meat usually muttonand fresh vegetables; norin and laghmannoodle-based dishes that may be served as a soup or a main course; mantichuchvaraand somsastuffed pockets of dough served as an appetiser or a main course; dimlamaa meat and vegetable stew; and various kebabsusually served as a main course.

Green tea is the national hot beverage consumed throughout the day; teahouses chaikhanas are of cultural importance. Black tea is preferred in Tashkentbut both green and black teas are consumed daily, without milk or sugar. Tea always accompanies a meal, but it is also a drink of hospitality that is automatically offered: green or black to every guest. Ayrana chilled yogurt drink, is popular in summer, but does not replace hot tea. The use of alcohol is less widespread than in the West, but wine is comparatively popular for a Muslim nation as Uzbekistan is largely secular.

Uzbekistan has 14 wineries, the oldest and most famous being the Khovrenko Winery in Samarkand established in The Samarkand Winery produces a range of dessert wines from local grape varieties: Gulyakandoz, Shirin, Aleatiko, and Kabernet likernoe literally Cabernet dessert wine in Russian. Uzbek wines have received international awards and are exported to Russia and other countries.

Uzbekistan is home to former racing cyclist Djamolidine Abdoujaparov. Abdoujaparov has won the green jersey points contest in the Tour de France three times. He would often 'sprint' in the final kilometre and had a reputation as being dangerous in these bunch sprints as he would weave from side to side. This reputation earned him the nickname 'The Terror of Tashkent'.

Chagaev defended his title twice before losing it to Vladimir Klitschko in Another young talented boxer Hasanboy Dusmatovlight flyweight champion at the Summer Olympicswon the Val Barker Trophy for the outstanding male boxer of Rio on 21 August Michael Kolganova sprint canoer, was world champion and won an Olympic bronze in the K-1 meter.

In an gymnast Alexander Shatilov won a world bronze medal as an artistic gymnast in floor exercise, though he lives in and represents Israel in international competition. Oksana Chusovitina has attended 7 Olympic games, and won many medals in artistic gymnastics. Some of those medals were won while representing Germany, though she currently competes for Uzbekistan.



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